Several creatures are living around us, we can see some of them and some don't visible, to recognize every single creature we have a framework called "Five Kingdom Classification" and is given by R.H.Whittaker, He partitioned the entire living organism into five classes which are:
1. Monera  ( Bacteria)
2. Protista  ( Amoeba, Paramecium etc)
3. Fungai   ( Yeast, Fusarium)
4. Plantae   ( All plants)
5. Animalia ( Animal Kingdom)

The Animal Kingdom, further divided into Chordata or Non-Chordata group. 
       Chordata Group                                                                         Non-Chordata
1. Fishes ( Catfish, Dig fish)                                                    1. Protozoa Group (Unicellular)
2. Amphibians ( Frog, Salamander)                                       2. Metazoa
3. Reptiles   ( Crocodile, Turtle, Lizard, Snake)
4. Birds (All Birds, Penguin, kiwi)
5. Mammals  ( Seal, whale, Dolphin)


The important characteristics of Birds are- Feathers, Wings, Beaks, Laying Eggs, strong lightweight skeleton etc. 
Penguins and Kiwis are the special cases of Bird's class since they can't fly which is the basic trait of winged animals. Kiwis have small wings while Penguins have Flippers in the place of wings, With the assistance of the Flippers, penguins can swim in the water. Penguins usually found in the cold climate (Mostly in Antarctica continent) and live in groups called Colonies, but one species named Galápagos Penguin found in a warm climate and is only one penguin which lives in The Northern Hemisphere.
Penguins are found in many countries like Argentina, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Namibia, Angola and in Antarctica continent.  

What do penguins Eat

Penguins are carnivorous they eat a wide variety of fishes. They mostly feed Krill, fish, Squid etc.

Species of Penguin

Emperor Penguin

The Emperor Penguin is the tallest and heaviest penguin species and belongs to Antarctica. They have black feathers in the head and back, the stomach area is white coloured and yellow patches can be seen in the neck portion. Their length and weight can range up to 100 cm and 45 kg respectively. Female Penguin lays an egg which is taken care by the male penguin till two months in this period he eats nothing, the female penguin goes to sea for collecting food and after the return, the male penguin goes for searching the food. Their lifespan is around 20 years.
Their colonies can be located in a few kilometres from the coastline, where some ice cliffs or stable ice be found. It provides shelter to them from the cold breeze. Several thousand individuals can be found in a colony. 
As per the IUCN, their status is Near Threatened.

King Penguin

The King penguin is the second largest species of penguin and their appearance is similar to Emperor Penguin, the interesting fact about king Penguin that they are Monogamous (having only one mate at a time) in nature. Their breeding cycle is very long, it takes around 14-16 months of an egg to mature. 
According to the IUCN, the population of King Penguin is increasing, and they are under the category of least concerned. However, due to climate change, the ice of the sea is softening, This result in the size of the breeding ground is reducing. It has been seen that the major population of King penguin vanished in nearly a decade due to disruptive change in the marine ecosystem.

Adélie penguin

                                                                                        Source Wikipedia

The natural surroundings of Adélie penguin are in the Antarctic mainland, it is the most broadly spread penguin species. Their length and weight can range up to 46-71 cm and 3-6 kg respectively. They have the black plume in the head and back and white feathers in the rest area (Their appearance looks like Tuxedo) and a circle-shaped white pattern found around their eyes.
They are categorized under LC (Least concern) category by IUCN, However, Their population is also increasing but are vulnerable to climate change.

Little Blue Penguin

                                                                                                                   Source Wikipedia

It is the smallest species of Penguin, The maximum height and weight of this species can range up to 33 cm and 1.5 kg respectively. The average age of Blue penguin is 6 years and found in Australia and New Zealand. Their flippers, head and upper part are of blue colour and the lower part is of grey colour. They spend the major part of their day in swimming and hunting. Little penguins leave their home at dawn, In search of food for the whole day and come back to their homes after sunset. They are also known as Australian little penguin and White-Flippered Penguin.
IUCN status - Least concern.

Galápagos Penguin

Galápagos Penguin is the only species of penguin which lives in the Northern Hemisphere, they found in Galápagos island in Ecuador. Their length and weight can range from 49 cm and 2.5 kg respectively. These penguins have the black head and the black flippers with a white coloured border which spread from eyes to the neck circularly, Their belly area is also white. The sea temperature in Galapagos islands can vary from 15-28 degree Celsius, during the period of high ocean temperature they don't breed because of food scarcity they breed when the ocean temperature falls below 25-degree Celsius. Galápagos penguins shield their eggs from the searing sun by placing them in the gap in the stones. This species is endangered, Their population is decreasing.

Other species of penguins are Yellow-eyed penguin, Royal Penguin, Snares Penguin, Humbolt Penguin, African Penguin etc.

Facts About Penguins

1. Penguin can travel up to 80 kilometres or 50 miles in a day. 
2. Penguins are Monogamous.
3. Penguins can dive between 100-200 m, but Emperor penguin can dive up to 560 m.
4. They are Birds but they can't fly.
5. Penguin can be hunt by Southern giant Petrels, Seal fish, South polar skua etc.
6. Due to climate change, the ice of the sea is softening, which is detrimental for penguins. Still, their population is increasing.
7. The Waitaha penguins, Chatham Penguins have vanished completely.


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